Thursday, September 15, 2005

Breast Cancer, Be Aware!

Materi Pengajian Akhwat
Ahad, 7 Agustus 2005

By: Dr Dyah Mustikaning PP

Breast Profile: (please refer to the picture below)





a. Ducts
b. Lobules
c. dilated section of duct to hold milk
d. nipple
e. fat
f. pectoralis major muscle
g. chest wall / rib cage

SkemaEnlargement:
a. normal duct cells
b. basement membrane
c. lumen (center of duct)


Breast Profile, cancer:
a. Ducts
b. Lobules
c. dilated section of duct to hold milk
d. nipple
e. fat
f. pectoralis major muscle
g. chest wall / rib cage

Enlargement
a. normal lobular cells
b. lobular cancer cells
c. basement membrane

Risk Factors, Individual:
a. Growing older, the longer you live, the higher your risk
b. personal history of breast cancer
c. family history of breast cancer

Risk Factor, Prolonged Estrogen Exposure:
a. starting menstruation at a young age
b. going through menopause at a late age
c. taking menopause hormone therapy
d. never having had a full-term pregnancy
e. having a first full-term pregnancy after age 30
f. being overweight
g. exposure to estrogens in the environment
h. having more than two alcoholic drinks per week
i. smoking
j. diet
k. stress

Step 1:
- breasts that are their usual size, shape and color
- breasts that are evenly shaped without visible distortion or swelling


changes, bring them to your doctor's attention:
- dimpling, puckering, or bulging of the skin
- a nipple that has changed position or an inverted nipple (pushed inward instead of ticking out)
- redness, soreness, rash or swelling

Step 2:
- raise your arms
- look for the same changes

Step 3:
- gently squeeze each nipple between your finger and thumb
- find nipple discharge

Step 4:
- feel your breast while lying down
- use your right hand to feel your left breast
- use a firm, smooth touch with the first few fingers of your hand, keeping the fingers flat and together
- cover the entire breast, follow a pattern
- begin a very soft touch, and then increase pressure

Step 5:
- feel your breast while you are standing or sitting
- easy wheen skin is wet and slippery, so do this step in the shower
- cover your entire breast, using the same hand movements described in step 4

In order to detect a breast cancer, it can also use: ultrasound or mammography.


More explanation,see the following sites:

http://radiologyinfo.org/content/therapy/thera-breast.htm
http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/editorial.asp?pageid=37

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